Pedodontics is a branch of dentistry that deals with the preservation of dental health, prevention of possible problems, treatment of emerging diseases and protection of teeth for the future during the emergence of milk teeth and then permanent teeth.
What are Pedodontics Procedures?
The Procedures of pedodontics are:
- Procedures preventing caries development
- Procedures preventing periodontal diseases
- Treatment of structural developmental anomalies
- Root canal treatments of deciduous teeth and permanent teeth
- Aesthetic treatment of deciduous teeth and permanent teeth
- Treatment of clenching and grinding teeth
When Do Milk Teeth Grow?
Deciduous teeth begin to emerge when the baby is 6 -12 months old and are completed when the baby is 24-30 months old. 10 of the 20 milk teeth in total are located in the lower jaw, and 10 are in the upper jaw.
When Do Permanent Teeth Grow?
Permanent teeth eruption occurs at the age of 5-6 with the eruption of the first molar tooth, and is completed at the age of 20. Of the 32 permanent teeth in total, 16 are located in the upper jaw and 16 in the lower jaw. It is divided into four groups under the names of cutter, dog, molar and twenty years.
When Should the First Dental Examination Be Done?
Babies should be taken to the first dental examination after the first tooth eruption (6-12 months). After that, with the controls to be performed every six months, healthy tooth development is ensured.
What is Baby Bottle Tooth Decay?
Baby bottle decay occurs when bottle-fed milk or sweetened pacifiers remain in the mouth before and / or during sleep.
The sugar contained in the remaining milk causes staining on the teeth and then decays.
Things to Consider to Prevent Bottle Decay
- Bottle rot formation should be prevented, as it may cause bigger problems and treatment of baby decay is difficult. For this:
- When the first milk teeth begin to emerge (between 6-12 months), the hygiene of the teeth should be ensured. Teeth can be cleaned or a finger brush can be used by wrapping a clean, slightly moistened gauze pad over the index finger.
- Putting the baby to sleep with a bottle, holding it in the mother’s breast or with a sweetened pacifier should definitely be stopped around the age of 1.
- With the emergence of the first milk tooth, the baby should be taken to the first dental examination and then a follow-up should be done every 6 months.
- Between the ages of 2-4, teeth should be brushed with a toothpaste recommended by the dentist or without using toothpaste.
- Even natural flavoring should not be added to milk.
Dental Protective Methods performed for Children
Dental preserving methods performed for children are as follows:
1) Fissure Sealants (Fissure Sealants)
Fissure sealants are transparent or white fluids used to cover the indentations on the chewing surfaces of molars. By covering the top of the recesses, the accumulation of various residues on these surfaces and the resulting decays are prevented. It will be extremely beneficial to use fissure sealants as soon as the molars are removed. It is an operation that does not cause pain. If it falls, it can be easily renewed.
2) Fluoride Varnish (Fluoride Polish) Application
The enamel structure of the tooth is strengthened by the fluoride varnish in the form of gel, foam or polish. It is applied by rubbing on the teeth. It can be done around 3 years of age. Hot and hard foods and drinks should not be consumed in the first four hours after the procedure. Again, systemic fluoride application can be made. For this, fluoride can be added to drinking water or milk, and it can also be used in lozenge, tablet and drop forms. Systemic administration should not be done without consulting the physician.
Children Dental Treatments
Root Canal Treatment for Milk Teeth
Root canal treatment should definitely be applied to the milk teeth in the caries extending to the pulp (dental nerve). Root canal treatment materials in children are special and do not prevent the development of permanent teeth. Since the extraction of milk teeth will cause problems in the emergence of permanent teeth, root canal treatment and tooth protection are of great importance.
Filling and Crown Procedure
Metal-Based Filling (Amalgam Filling)
They are preferred if there is extensive tooth decay. They can be applied in a short time. The mercury contained in the material is harmless. For 24 hours after the procedure, the filled side should not be used and hard foods should be avoided.
- Plastic Based Filler (White Filler / Composite Fill)
They are tooth-colored, their advantage is that they do not cause sensitivity in the teeth, although their production takes longer than metal-based fillings.
Metal crowns made of stainless steel are applied only in cases where caries are too deep and excessive and dental tissue is insufficient. Because deciduous teeth are smaller than permanent teeth and their enamel layers are thinner, crowns are preferred over fillings. There may be mild pain following the application, in this case, pain relievers are sufficient. This application does not delay or cause problems in the loss of milk teeth. Today, there are also varieties of metal crowns with porcelain-coated outside or complete zirconium.
Deciduous Tooth Extraction
The extraction of deciduous teeth is only necessary if all treatment options are exhausted or if there is a serious infection that will damage the permanent teeth. Apart from this, it is very important to protect the milk teeth in the mouth so that permanent teeth can come out in a healthy way. A radiological evaluation is essential before the shooting decision.
After the milk tooth is extracted, the cavity of the milk tooth should be preserved so that permanent teeth can come out easily. In this way, the place of the permanent tooth does not narrow. Holder apparatus are used for this purpose. If a single tooth is extracted, a fixed placeholder is attached, and if more than one tooth is extracted, a movable placeholder is attached. While the child cannot remove the fixed holder by himself, he / she can attach and remove the movable holder by himself. With the start of permanent teeth coming out, the dentist should be checked to see if they are healthy.