Periodontology is a branch of dentistry that deals with diseases and treatment of bone and gum tissues surrounding teeth.


What treatments does the periodontology department perform?


Periodontology department is a set of procedures that start with tartar cleaning, which is the initial treatment, and includes advanced periodontal treatments such as curettage, flap operations and mucogingival surgeries, which we call aesthetic gingival operations, depending on the severity of the disease.


What is a Bacteria Plate?


Bacteria plaque is when the bacteria in the mouth multiply rapidly and form a sticky and translucent layer on the teeth when adequate dental hygiene cannot be provided. One milligram of plate contains around 200 to 500 million bacteria. Since the substance that allows bacteria to adhere to the tooth is not affected by water, bacteria cannot be removed from the tooth with water. As the acid contained in the bacterial plaque contacts the tooth, it damages the tooth and causes decay. The formation point of the bacterial plaque is usually at the gum level. Bacteria plaques also damage the gums in this way, causing problems such as bleeding and inflammation.


Bacteria plaques change and harden with saliva over time, turning into tartar. Brown or yellow tartar can only be cleaned by the dentist.

To prevent bacterial plaques, teeth should be brushed for a sufficient time after meals and before sleeping at night, and dental floss should be used. Gargling before going to sleep at night will also be beneficial.


How does the patient understand that he / she has a gum problem?


The first and most important symptom of gum disease is bleeding gums. In addition, it manifests itself with swelling and redness in the gums, itching and teasing sensation, regional or widespread recessions and sensitivity in the extracted areas. In more advanced cases, inflammation flow between the teeth and gums, pathological migration in the teeth, elongation and shaking can be observed. All these symptoms can be accompanied by bad smell and taste.


Is there a problem if the gums bleed while brushing teeth, should a doctor go?


Gingival bleeding while brushing teeth is the earliest and most important symptom of gum disease. It is absolutely necessary to go to a periodontist.


Can gum ailments be a harbinger of another disease?

Gum health is an important part of our overall health. As a result of many studies conducted today, it has been determined that there is an important relationship between diabetes and gum disease. Bleeding, edema and abscess development in the gums are observed in diabetes patients. Besides diabetes, important associations have been found between heart diseases and lung diseases and gum diseases. We can observe the first symptoms of some skin diseases such as leukoplakia and lichen planus in the form of widespread redness and plaques on the gums and cheek mucosa. In addition, widespread redness and bleeding in the form of typical erythema in the gums in the early period may be a symptom of some blood diseases such as leukemia.


Pedodontics is a branch of dentistry that deals with the preservation of dental health, prevention of possible problems, treatment of emerging diseases and protection of teeth for the future during the emergence of milk teeth and then permanent teeth.


What are Pedodontics Procedures?


The Procedures of pedodontics are:

  • Procedures preventing caries development
  • Procedures preventing periodontal diseases
  • Treatment of structural developmental anomalies
  • Root canal treatments of deciduous teeth and permanent teeth
  • Aesthetic treatment of deciduous teeth and permanent teeth
  • Treatment of clenching and grinding teeth


When Do Milk Teeth Grow?


Deciduous teeth begin to emerge when the baby is 6 -12 months old and are completed when the baby is 24-30 months old. 10 of the 20 milk teeth in total are located in the lower jaw, and 10 are in the upper jaw.

When Do Permanent Teeth Grow?


Permanent teeth eruption occurs at the age of 5-6 with the eruption of the first molar tooth, and is completed at the age of 20. Of the 32 permanent teeth in total, 16 are located in the upper jaw and 16 in the lower jaw. It is divided into four groups under the names of cutter, dog, molar and twenty years.


When Should the First Dental Examination Be Done?


Babies should be taken to the first dental examination after the first tooth eruption (6-12 months). After that, with the controls to be performed every six months, healthy tooth development is ensured.


What is Baby Bottle Tooth Decay?


Baby bottle decay occurs when bottle-fed milk or sweetened pacifiers remain in the mouth before and / or during sleep.

The sugar contained in the remaining milk causes staining on the teeth and then decays.


Things to Consider to Prevent Bottle Decay


  • Bottle rot formation should be prevented, as it may cause bigger problems and treatment of baby decay is difficult. For this:
  • When the first milk teeth begin to emerge (between 6-12 months), the hygiene of the teeth should be ensured. Teeth can be cleaned or a finger brush can be used by wrapping a clean, slightly moistened gauze pad over the index finger.
  • Putting the baby to sleep with a bottle, holding it in the mother’s breast or with a sweetened pacifier should definitely be stopped around the age of 1.
  • With the emergence of the first milk tooth, the baby should be taken to the first dental examination and then a follow-up should be done every 6 months.
  • Between the ages of 2-4, teeth should be brushed with a toothpaste recommended by the dentist or without using toothpaste.
  • Even natural flavoring should not be added to milk.


Dental Protective Methods performed for Children


Dental preserving methods performed for children are as follows:


1) Fissure Sealants (Fissure Sealants)


Fissure sealants are transparent or white fluids used to cover the indentations on the chewing surfaces of molars. By covering the top of the recesses, the accumulation of various residues on these surfaces and the resulting decays are prevented. It will be extremely beneficial to use fissure sealants as soon as the molars are removed. It is an operation that does not cause pain. If it falls, it can be easily renewed.

2) Fluoride Varnish (Fluoride Polish) Application


The enamel structure of the tooth is strengthened by the fluoride varnish in the form of gel, foam or polish. It is applied by rubbing on the teeth. It can be done around 3 years of age. Hot and hard foods and drinks should not be consumed in the first four hours after the procedure. Again, systemic fluoride application can be made. For this, fluoride can be added to drinking water or milk, and it can also be used in lozenge, tablet and drop forms. Systemic administration should not be done without consulting the physician.


Children Dental Treatments


Root Canal Treatment for Milk Teeth


Root canal treatment should definitely be applied to the milk teeth in the caries extending to the pulp (dental nerve). Root canal treatment materials in children are special and do not prevent the development of permanent teeth. Since the extraction of milk teeth will cause problems in the emergence of permanent teeth, root canal treatment and tooth protection are of great importance.


Filling and Crown Procedure

Metal-Based Filling (Amalgam Filling)


They are preferred if there is extensive tooth decay. They can be applied in a short time. The mercury contained in the material is harmless. For 24 hours after the procedure, the filled side should not be used and hard foods should be avoided.


  • Plastic Based Filler (White Filler / Composite Fill)


They are tooth-colored, their advantage is that they do not cause sensitivity in the teeth, although their production takes longer than metal-based fillings.

Metal Crowns


Metal crowns made of stainless steel are applied only in cases where caries are too deep and excessive and dental tissue is insufficient. Because deciduous teeth are smaller than permanent teeth and their enamel layers are thinner, crowns are preferred over fillings. There may be mild pain following the application, in this case, pain relievers are sufficient. This application does not delay or cause problems in the loss of milk teeth. Today, there are also varieties of metal crowns with porcelain-coated outside or complete zirconium.


Deciduous Tooth Extraction


The extraction of deciduous teeth is only necessary if all treatment options are exhausted or if there is a serious infection that will damage the permanent teeth. Apart from this, it is very important to protect the milk teeth in the mouth so that permanent teeth can come out in a healthy way. A radiological evaluation is essential before the shooting decision.

After the milk tooth is extracted, the cavity of the milk tooth should be preserved so that permanent teeth can come out easily. In this way, the place of the permanent tooth does not narrow. Holder apparatus are used for this purpose. If a single tooth is extracted, a fixed placeholder is attached, and if more than one tooth is extracted, a movable placeholder is attached. While the child cannot remove the fixed holder by himself, he / she can attach and remove the movable holder by himself. With the start of permanent teeth coming out, the dentist should be checked to see if they are healthy.


In dentistry, the domain that deals with the detection, prevention and correction of jaw, tooth and skull bone disorders, distortions, i.e. anomalies, is called orthodontics.

Although it is generally known as the part where braces are attached, the treatment area is much wider. Orthognathic Surgery, performed in cooperation with surgeons, also plays an important role in orthodontics.
With orthodontic treatment, both functional recovery and self-confidence are provided in the social life of the person.

Causes of Orthodontic Disorders


  • Genetic predisposition
  • Traumas (such as crash, fall)
  • Oral breathing
  • Finger sucking
  • Lip, tongue sucking
  • Using bottles and pacifiers for a long time
  • Congenital anomalies such as recumbent palate and cleft lip
  • Trauma such as teeth grinding, falling or knocking
  • Non-intervened tonsil and adenoid diseases


When To Get an Orthodontic Examination?

When orthodontic examination is done without delay, a much more efficient and effective treatment is provided. Therefore, examination and treatment is recommended for jaw problems before entering puberty (around 10 years old). Again, it is important in the examination around the age of 5 in terms of early detection and prevention of various developmental disorders. There is no age limit for orthodontic treatment (braces).


Orthodontic Treatment Types


Orthodontic treatment is examined in three main sections as preventive, preventive and fixed orthodontic treatment.


Preventive Orthodontic Treatment


Preventive orthodontic treatment detects orthodontic problems that may arise in the future, prevents their progress, and regulates development. If the deciduous teeth are lost early, problems occur in the eruption of the permanent teeth to replace, and dental disorders occur. With preventive orthodontic treatment, permanent teeth are properly removed by using placeholders that protect the place of early fallen milk teeth. Treatment of decayed teeth is also included in this treatment.


Preventive Orthodontic Treatment


Preventive orthodontic treatment is included in the treatment to prevent problems that may develop as a result of behaviors such as fingers, lips, tongue sucking, abnormal swallowing, and to ensure that permanent teeth are properly removed. Thus, facial, jaw and dental malpositions are prevented and eliminated. Treatment is carried out using mobile devices.


Fixed Orthodontic Treatment


Fixed orthodontic treatment is performed after permanent teeth are removed. It can take about 18-36 months. Brackets that can be attached and removed by the physician, not by the patient, and the wires passing between them are used. If the patient’s condition is suitable for the use of brackets that adhere to the inner surfaces of the teeth, they may not be visible from the outside.


Braces & Brackets


Different types of brackets are used according to the patient’s condition which can be listed as follows:


Metal Brackets


Metal brackets are the most used type. They are made of stainless steel. Their economic status is an advantage. The rubbers used to fasten the wire can be colored or colorless, according to preference.


Lingual Brackets


It is especially preferred in terms of aesthetics. If the condition of the teeth is suitable, it is ensured that the braces are invisible by attaching to the back surfaces of the teeth.


Sapphire Brackets


They are transparent and solid brackets. Their aesthetics are advantageous, but they show the stain more.


Ceramic Brackets


They are aesthetic braces made of translucent material that are difficult to notice unless looked closely. They show the stain more.


Invisalign (Dental Wireless Orthodontic Treatment)


Invisalign treatment is a type of orthodontic treatment that does not use braces, in which transparent plaques prepared for the person are inserted into the tooth. Teeth move slowly. It is preferred in terms of aesthetics. During the treatment, it is removed for a maximum of one or two hours a day.


Reinforcement Therapy


After the treatment with braces is completed, the teeth tend to return to their original positions. By preventing this, reinforcement treatment is applied to maintain the post-treatment position of the teeth. For this, fixed and invisible appliances affixed to the back of the teeth or removable appliances that the patient can put and remove are used. Reinforcement treatment usually continues for half of the actual orthodontic treatment process.


Things to Consider During Orthodontic Treatment


Orthodontic treatment (braces) is a process that requires patience and patient compliance. In this process, especially;


  • Hard foods should be cut into small pieces instead of biting.
  • Oral hygiene should be provided at an optimum level. Teeth should be brushed after each meal and the toothbrush should not be used for more than a month.
  • Acid, sugary foods and hard nuts that will damage the brackets and wires should be avoided.
  • Front teeth should not be used as much as possible while biting.
  • Clenching or grinding teeth should be avoided during and after orthodontic treatment. 

The treatment should be continued for the period and as recommended by the physician.

Oral Diagnosis

Oral Diagnosis and Radiology

Correct diagnosis is very important for the correct treatment of teeth, gums, related diseases or systemic diseases in the mouth. Oral diagnosis and radiology is a branch of dentistry that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of oral diseases or other diseases that show symptoms in the mouth.

Dental films (dental radiographs) are the most effective method for diagnosis.

Dental Films (Dental Radiographs)

Dental films are generally divided into two groups; periapical radiography showing several teeth and panoramic radiography showing the entire teeth and jaw bones.

Periapical Radiography

If a suspicious situation is observed in the panoramic radiography, periapical radiography is taken for further examination. The closest view of the teeth to the exact size can be taken in this way. Imaging includes several adjacent teeth and surrounding bone tissue.

Panoramic Radiography
With panoramic radiography, all of the teeth, surrounding bone tissue, all of the jaw bones and embedded teeth are displayed. This image can be viewed on the computer screen at the same time. Measurement can be made on the image. Thanks to the panoramic radiography, now invisible caries, cysts, tumors and advanced periodontal diseases in the teeth and jaw can be detected. This imaging method is preferred for a small number of implant applications and extraction of impacted teeth.

Computed Tomography (CT)

It is a 3D imaging technique. It is preferred in the presence of many implants, large cysts or tumors where other imaging techniques are not sufficient. Provides accuracy in detailed diagnosis and measurement.

Is Dental Radiography Harmful?

With the advanced technology devices used today and taking the necessary protection measures, the exposure dose is very low and dental radiography is not harmful. Although it is not withdrawn unless necessary in pregnant women, it can be withdrawn safely when necessary. The dental x-ray has a radiation dose of 0.01 milli rad. In order to be harmful to the baby, this dose must exceed 5 rad, which can only be done by taking thousands of dental films.

Bone Graft

Bone graft (jawbone powder) is the bone part used to fill the deficient part of the bone in case of bone loss. The main purpose here is to strengthen and / or repair the tissue. They are obtained from the person’s own bones, or from animals or synthetically made . The amount used around the implant is usually around 0.5 cc.

What are the Types of Bone Graft / Jaw Bone Powder?

The types of bone grafts (jawbone powder) are as follows according to the materials they are obtained;

  • Autograft 

It is called graft osteotograft which is obtained from a patient’s own bones. The most preferred bone here is the hip bone. Also, ribs, and rarely skull bones can be used. Since the person’s own tissue is used, the possibility of tissue rejection is very low. There is no risk of disease transmission between individuals. The disadvantage is that it requires a second surgical intervention.

  • Allograft 

An allograft is a bone tissue taken from another person. They are available frozen or freeze dried. The advantage is that there is no need for a second surgical intervention. However, the possibility of tissue rejection is higher. Today, although it is very low, there is a risk of interpersonal disease transmission.

Synthetic Bone Grafts

Synthetic bone grafts are grafts obtained chemically. Ceramic is the most common type. There is no risk of causing disease transmission. there is no possibility of transmission. Although it creates a framework for bone formation, since it does not carry the proteins and cells required it should be used with bone grafts containing them for ossification. They are more affordable.


If a bone is taken from a living species and used in a different species, it is called a caesograft. They are generally obtained from cattle.

Composite graft
Graft, which is a combination of different graft types, is called composite graft.

What are Bone Graft Procedures?

What kind of bone graft is proceeded depends on the condition of the case.

Extending the Jawbone (Crest)

Extending the jawbone (crest) is the name given to the method applied if the prosthetic parts of the jaw bones (crests) are melted. Here, the crest height or width is increased by placing the bone graft. There is also a method of distraction osteogenesis, in which the bone of the patient is intervened with some special tools and the bone expands slowly. Its advantage is that it is durable and permanent as the bone renews itself.

Sinus Floor Raising

The maxillary sinuses are spaces on the left and right sides of the cheek in the skull above the upper molar roots adjacent to the eye, above the tooth root and mouth. Since some of the tooth roots extend into these spaces, if these teeth are extracted, a thin bone wall remains between the maxillary sinus and the mouth. If dental implant is to be performed to this bone, it is necessary to thicken the bone, in other words to raise the sinus floor. In order to perform the procedure, an intra-sinus bone graft is required, that is, sinus grafting or bone thickening (sinus lifting) in the area where the sinus cavities are located. In addition, guide bone regeneration or directed tissue regeneration is performed and bone and gum regeneration is provided. A few months after improvement in the sinus lifting process, the dental implant can be placed in this bone.

Nerve Reposition (Repositioning)

Displacement of the inferior alveolar nerve, which is responsible for the nervous control of the lower jaw and lower lip, is called nerve repositioning. With aging, the melting of the jaw bones and the higher sliding of this nerve causes pressure on the prosthesis while eating, causing pain or numbness. In this case, the nerve is moved with this operation.

Smile Design

The concept of smile design is to provide a smile that best suits the person, that is, natural and suitable for facial expression. Smile design increases the social confidence of the person and provides a youthful look.

The main point of smile design is interventions on teeth (such as malalignment, correction of height differences, implant procedures). For this, some basic parameters such as face shape, gums and age of the person are taken into consideration.

Smile Emoticons

Although there are sub-types of smile expressions, they are divided into 3 basic groups:

  • Attractive SmileNormally seen in young people, the front teeth in the attractive smile are longer than the side teeth. In the attractive smile design, the front incisors are planned to be longer than the side teeth.
  • Intellectual SmileThe intellectual smile adds a more mature tone to the person. In this type of smile design, the teeth are planned in a straight line.
  • Sporty SmileThe sporty smile is like the combination of an intellectual and attractive smile. It gives a sincere expression to the person. While planning the intellectual smile, the front incisors are planned to be slightly longer than the side teeth, without giving the person a very young look.


Smile Design Planning

Before planning a smile design, the patient should fully share his expectation with his physician. This is very important in terms of patient satisfaction after the procedures.

The planning of the smile design is as follows:

  • Oral and dental structure of the patient is examined in detail by various methods such as radiographic examination, panoramic shooting, 3D imaging.
  • The physician makes a treatment plan considering the age, gender, gingival structure, facial structure and symmetry of the patient.
  • Before treatment, the finished version of the design is made into a model and shown in the patient’s mouth. Thus, necessary arrangements can be made.

Types of Treatment Applied in Smile Design

  • Implant TreatmentImplant treatment involves placing an artificial tooth root (implant) in the jaw bone instead of lost teeth and placing a prosthesis on it. At the end of the treatment, the patient regains his dental functions and aesthetically improves. The duration of treatment depends on the number of implants and the health of the jawbone (half an hour to a few hours). After the implant is placed, a period of approximately 3 months is expected for the bone to fuse and the tissue to heal. During this period, the patient is fitted with a temporary prosthesis and a permanent prosthesis at the end of 3 months.
  • Orthodontic TreatmentOrthodontic treatment, the lower and upper jaw and the disorders between the teeth and the jaws are corrected. The duration of treatment varies between 1.5 and 2.5 years, depending on factors such as the age of the patient, the technique used and the degree of the disorder.
  • Teeth BleachingTeeth bleaching is the process performed to make the teeth that have changed color due to various reasons and look whiter in accordance with the original tooth color. Procedure does not cause pain. In case of diseases such as tooth decay, treatment is performed first and then bleaching is performed.
  • Lamina Porcelain ProcedureLamina porcelain or leaf porcelain is one of the most performed aesthetic procedures because it is very close to nature and is made with very little thinning to the tooth. Lamina porcelain is bonded to the tooth after a very little thinning of 0.3-0.7 mm. The process is usually completed in 2-3 sessions. Leaf porcelains transmit light in a way close to normal teeth, their color does not change easily and they are durable.
  • Zirconium Porcelain Crown ProcedureZirconium porcelain crowns are especially preferred for anterior teeth. They are preferred because of their high aesthetic properties (they look natural due to their good light transmittance), their durability, and the lack of sensitivity and health of the material. Although they seem economically costly at first, it can be said that they are more profitable in the long run.
  • Pink AestheticsThey are interventions for pink aesthetic gums. The method to be applied depends on the condition of the gum.

Filling & Conservative Dental Treatment

It is the cleaning of dental caries and filling the formed cavity with an artificial filling material. Tooth decay is currently defined as a disease that occurs in dental tissues due to more than one cause.

Many systemic diseases also show important symptoms in the mouth. For example, gum disease progresses very quickly in diabetes. Also, frequent and numerous aphthae in the mouth may be the first symptoms of Behçet’s disease. For these reasons, a separate division of diagnosis and treatment planning of oral diseases had to be born and Oral Diagnosis and Radiology took on this task.

Tooth Decay Causes;

  • Bacteria plate
  • Carbohydrate foods (Sugar, flour etc.)
  • Internal factors (structure of teeth, composition of saliva, etc.)
  • Time (the duration of food in the mouth)

Bacteria plaque formed by bacteria in the mouth can form acid from the leftovers of sugary and floury foods. These acids dissolve the mineral tissue of the tooth and damage the enamel of the tooth, causing the formation of cavities, which we call cavities.


Dental caries can occur on the chewing surface of the tooth, on the contact surfaces of the teeth or in the neck areas of the teeth. It is easy to detect brownness or pitting that forms on visible surfaces. However, X-ray diagnosis is also required for caries that do not have these symptoms.

The decay that starts in the enamel tissue of the tooth progresses to the dentin tissue when it is not treated. Dentin is a structure that dissolves more easily than enamel and therefore caries progression is rapid. A patient with a tooth decay that has reached the dentin tissue may have a sensitivity to hot, cold, sour or sweetness as a result of an agent. This pain passes when the agent disappears.
If the pain becomes permanent, the decay has progressed to the pulp layer where the vascular-nerve package of the tooth is collected, and canal treatment is required for this.


It is a plastic mixture containing silicon dioxide particles. It is not noticeable on the teeth with various color options and is also called aesthetic-white filling. The material, which was used only for the front teeth for a period, has been strengthened with various methods and made suitable for the posterior teeth. Using a special binding agent, the filling material placed on the tooth is hardened with a light device and polished in the same session.


Measure is taken from the cavity prepared in porcelain fillings and sent to the laboratory. When the patient comes to the next session, the polished porcelain filling is adhered to the cavity.


It is formed by mixing silver, tin and copper alloy with 45-50% mercury. After filling the cavity cleaned of decay with amalgam filling material, it is recommended not to use that area for two hours and not to chew anything hard for 24 hours. The well-hardened filling is polished after 24 hours.

Dental Prosthesis

If all treatment methods have been tried but the problems in the teeth are not solved, the last point to go with is dental prosthesis. With the replacement of the lost teeth, the patient can regain his / her eating and speaking functions and their confidence in their social life. Since even a tooth loss causes permanent damage, then a dental prosthesis should never be neglected.

Dental prostheses can be made in two ways depending on the condition of the tooth; removable denture and fixed denture.


Removable dental prosthesis is performed to patients with complete loss or almost no teeth. The person can put on and remove this prosthesis himself.

It may take several weeks to get used to the dentures. In order to accelerate the habituation, prostheses can be worn continuously at the beginning, but then it is necessary to remove them at night and keep them in clean water.

There are several types of removable dentures:

Full Denture

  • It is a prosthesis given if there is no tooth in the mouth. Also called false teeth.
  • Partial Denture
  • Partial dental prosthesis is performed in cases where one or more teeth are lost. They are attached to the teeth either by metal wires or by a system where the fasteners (snaps) are almost invisible.

Temporary Denture

  • These are the prostheses that are worn temporarily to prevent the person from being toothless during the preparation process of permanent prostheses and they are attached as soon as the tooth is removed.
  • Overdentures Dentures
  • If there are few teeth in the mouth, prosthesis called overdentures can be placed on these teeth or on the implants. Keeping the roots of the teeth in the mouth increases the retention of the prosthesis.


If there is excessive loss of material or deformity in the teeth, a fixed dental prosthesis is applied. It is the type of prosthesis preferred by dentists when the tooth’s condition allows it. It is fixed in the patient’s mouth and cannot be removed by the person himself.

For the procedure, the patient’s own tooth is made suitable for the coating, after the measurement is taken, the patient undergoes a rehearsal then the coating is performed. procedures are completed in 3 – 4 sessions.

Fixed prostheses fall into two subgroups; crown fixed dentures and bridge fixed dentures. According to the material they are made of, these are also divided into metal, metal-supported porcelain or full porcelain.

Fixed Bridge Prosthesis

It is the type of prosthesis used if one or more teeth are lost and neighboring teeth are healthy. A bridge is made with the help of healthy teeth on both sides of the lost tooth.

Fixed Crown Denture (Crown Tooth)

Crown fixed prosthesis is applied to teeth with severe material loss, teeth with discolored change, and deformities. The material used is in harmony with the tissues.


  • Metal crowns: They are used in areas such as the back areas that will not cause aesthetic problems because they are made entirely of metals such as gold and chrome. 
  • Metal supported porcelain crowns: As they have matte appearance, they are not preferred as much as full porcelain in terms of aesthetics. Their use is more common in posterior teeth. It is durable. Because the bottom material is porcelain coating over metal. 
  • Full porcelain crowns: Especially aesthetically preferred, full porcelain crowns are extremely compatible with the texture and do not cause allergies. They transmit light so they provide the closest view to natural teeth.

Adapting to Dental Prosthesis

The day after the prosthesis is placed, the dentist examines whether it is hitting or not, and the disturbing spots are detected and corrected. When the prosthesis is first attached, it is natural for the person to feel as if there is a foreign body in their mouth.

Removable prostheses should normally be removed at night and kept in clean water, but may not be removed on the first day for accustoming. It will take a while for the patient to get used to wearing and removing the dental prosthesis comfortably, so the difficulties experienced at the beginning during inserting and removing the prosthesis are temporary. In the first days, hard foods should be avoided, but it can be easily consumed after getting used to the prosthesis. There may be difficulty in speaking and pronunciation in the first days, but eventually it will subside.

Care and Cleaning of Dental Prostheses

In order for dental prostheses to be long-lasting, care must be taken cautiously. It is necessary not to neglect brushing after each meal and to use dental floss. Hard bristle brushes should not be used for brushing. Special denture cleaners can be used for cleaning. The prostheses should be kept in the water to which the denture cleanser tablet is added every 2-3 weeks. Trying to clean using chemicals should be avoided as this will cause damage to the prostheses. While the cleaning process is carried out, the procedure should be done on a cloth such as a towel, preventing the risk of the prosthesis falling. Removable prostheses must be kept in clean water at night, but the water should never be boiling. Going to regular controls prolongs the life of dental prostheses, therefore, a check should be made every six months.

Dental Implant

A dental implant is an artificial tooth root made of titanium, which is surgically placed into the jaw or skull bones to support dental prostheses or use as a fixed support in orthodontic treatments.

By virtue of the dental implant, better speaking, chewing function and a more aesthetic appearance are provided.

Who Can Have Dental Implants?

Dental implants give very good results, especially in patients who have lost their lower jaw teeth completely, those who have a prosthesis, who have lost their upper jaw teeth completely, those who have lost a part of their teeth in the lower or upper jaw, and those who have lost one tooth.

In order for the dental implant to be performed, the bone development must be completed, the jawbone must have the height and width to take the dental implant screw in the area where the dental implant is to be placed, the quality of the bone and the gums must be completely healthy.

In order to obtain the ideal bone and gingiva, pre-prosthetic applications such as sinus lift or gingival graft can sometimes be applied. Choosing the appropriate dental implant for the patient is a very important factor in the success of dental implant treatment. Before dental implant treatment, the general health of the patient should be considered. Especially in cases of uncontrolled diabetes, heart disease, blood coagulation disorder and high blood pressure, these diseases should be expected to be controlled before applying dental implants.

How Is Dental Implant Done?

Dental implant procedure can be done under general or local anesthesia according to the patient’s preference. After the dental implant is placed, it is expected to integrate with the bone (3-6 months), then a dental prosthesis is applied on it. A temporary prosthesis is used until the real prosthesis is attached. Prostheses can be removable by the patient himself or only by the physician according to the physician’s decision. The dental implant treatment process varies according to the patient’s condition. One or more surgeries may be required. Full recovery may take several months. Stopping alcohol and smoking before and after dental implant treatment speeds up recovery.

Post Dental Implant

After dental implant;

  • The tampon placed in the area after the implant should be bitten for about 30 – 45 minutes.
  • There may be mild pain after the operation, this can be relieved with simple painkillers.
  • There may be slight bleeding in the first 2 days, this is natural. If there is heavy bleeding, pressure can be applied to the area for half an hour with a second sterile gas pad.
  • There may be edema, or swelling, for 3 days after the operation. Meanwhile, ice can be applied from outside.
  • Although there is bruising on the skin after implant procedure, it is temporary.
  • In the first days, there may be difficulty in opening the mouth, this situation disappears in about a week.
  • If there are stitches, it will be removed after 1 week.
  • Do not eat or drink anything for 2 hours after the operation.
  • After the process, ice can be applied from outside.
  • Consumption of hot drinks or food should be avoided for 1 week following the implant.
  • Soft and cold foods (such as ice cream, yoghurt, cold puree, pudding) should be taken for 24 hours following the implant.
  • The first day after the operation should not be rinsed or gargled.
  • During the first 24 hours you should not be spit hard. Since swallowing the saliva will be harmful, it should be removed then from the mouth with gentle movements.
  • It should be rinsed with a mouthwash or salt water twice a day for 2 weeks starting 36 hours after the procedure. rinsing for about 1 minute. You should not eat or drink anything for the next half hour.
  • In the first days after implant, brushing should be done with slow and soft movements, care should be taken when using dental floss.
  • Smoking and alcohol should not be consumed for 1 month after the procedure.
  • Food should be chewed with the non-implanted side for a while.
  • The dentist should be consulted if conditions such as bleeding, pain, swelling, increase in bruising, longer than normal, or abscess formation occur.

Possible Post-Implant Complications

Postoperative complications are as follows;

*Inflammation in the bones and gums around the implant

*Very rarely dental implant rejection

*Tissue loss in the bone around the implant

*Failure of implant to bone

Does Dental Implant Cause Any Side Effects?

Dental implants do not cause any side effects, allergic reactions or cancer.

How Long Is A Dental Implant Life?

The life of the implanted dental implant depends on many factors. Being attentive and with good care, they can last for a lifetime. Oral care after dental implantation is taught to the patient by the physician. Generally, patients are recommended to have a 3-month periodic checkup.

Dental Esthetics

Dental esthetics are made in order to bring the teeth, lips, gums into a proportionate shape with each other, to make the teeth and gums healthy, and also to repair the person’s smile.

Dental Esthetics Procedures:

  • Teeth Bleaching: The color of the teeth may get dark due to reasons such as foods (tea, coffee, cigarettes, etc.), aging, genetics. With teeth bleaching, the main color of the teeth is lightened by a few hues. It can be performed in two ways. In some cases, both methods can be used together. One of these is the method performed by the physician using special bleaching solutions and a special lighting device (laser or high beam source). It takes approximately 45 minutes to 1 hour. It is performed in one or several sessions depending on the situation. In the other method, special plaques are prepared for the person’s teeth. The patient performs the procedure by placing a bleach solution into these plates at home. It is applied for 4-6 hours a day. After both methods, tea, coffee, cola, cherry juice, red wine, etc. Smoking should be avoided beside colored drinks and foods (such as multi-tomato paste). Care should be taken in cleaning teeth. It should be kept in mind that the teeth are more prone to coloring during this period.
  • Composite filling (Tooth-colored filling): Since it is hardened by lighting, it is called as white filling because it is in the color of a tooth. Composite material is also called composite resin. It is a plastic mixture with silicon dioxide particles in it. After the teeth are cleaned, the special composite filling material is placed in the slot and hardened with a special prepared beam. These Porcelain laminate veneer teeth are thin porcelain teeth of 0.3-0.5 mm thickness that are affixed to the front surfaces of the teeth. Since they are very thin and completely made of porcelain, their light transmittance is very good and they look like natural teeth. They are preferred in many cases such as closing the gaps in the front teeth, tooth alignment disorders, weak, small teeth, tooth discoloration. First of all, the plaster tooth model is prepared in the desired form and tested on the teeth. After the final shape is decided, the prepared laminate ceramics are tried on the teeth, and they are adhered on the teeth with special adhesives.

Porcelain Crowns

They are applied to teeth that have been damaged for various reasons. They can be grouped in different ways as metal-supported, metal-supported and zirconium-supported. Generally, metal-supported porcelain crowns are used, but for additional aesthetic purposes, those without metal support are preferred. Crowns look like natural teeth and are attached to the root of the tooth.

  • Porcelain Bridges: Performed in a small number of teeth missing in the mouth. If there are healthy teeth on both sides of the missing area, these neighboring teeth are reduced and the interstitial spaces are filled with support with special crowns. There are different types such as metal-supported ceramic, metal-free ceramic, porcelain laminate.

    • Porcelain Inlay / Onlay Fillings: These are fillings performed to teeth that require large fillings or to teeth with root canal treatment. Since it is a porcelain material, there is no color over time. The procedure is completed in approximately 2 sessions.

    • Orthodontics – Braces: Braces are generally performed for children, in the treatment of dental irregularities and jaw disorders. Approximate period of use is 1-1.5 years. For adults distortion between teeth can only be treated in this way. Braces can be made of porcelain, metal, and composites. The most preferred one is metal. The braces are of two types as lingual braces that can be placed in the front of the teeth and attached to the back. After the braces are attached, there is a 3-10 day acclimation period. Although a little biting pain occurs in the teeth during this process, this is a temporary situation. It is important to pay attention to oral care during the treatment in order to prevent bruises that may occur when the wires are removed.

    • Gingival aesthetics (Gingivoplasty): The shape and position of the gum are also important in dental aesthetics. Gum aesthetics is the intervention made to the gums to eliminate situations like (gummy smile) where the gums are asymmetrical or are seen too much during smiling. Generally, the procedure can be performed with little cut in gums.

Lamina Porcelain (Leaf Porcelain)

The most important feature of lamina porcelain or leaf porcelain as it is popularly known is that the loss of strong tooth structure is very low. Teeth are not cut, only their front faces are thinned around 0.3 – 0.7 mm. Then, porcelain dental laminates are placed. They are especially used for misalignment of the teeth, filling the gaps in the front teeth, unwanted coloring-staining on the teeth, and bringing weak or small teeth to normal size. Leaf porcelains with extremely high light transmittance with very thin and completely porcelain structure gives a very aesthetic look because of their natural appearance. The plaster tooth model prepared in the desired form is tested on the teeth and the final form is decided. Then, lamina is tried on porcelain teeth and the process is terminated by adhering them on the teeth with special adhesives.